need to pass plagiarism test 1

Original Source Material

Student Version

In examining the history of the visionary companies, we were struck by how often they made some of their best moves not by detailed strategic planning, but rather by experimentation, trial and error, opportunism, and–quite literally–accident. What looks in hindsight like a brilliant strategy was often the residual result of opportunistic experimentation and “purposeful accidents.”

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

When I look back on the decisions I’ve made, it’s clear that I made some of my best choices not through a thorough analytical investigation of my options, but instead by trial and error and, often, simply by accident. The somewhat random aspect of my success or failure is, at the same time, both encouraging and scary.

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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

But what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education?While the question of how global processes influence all aspects of education (and who controls these forces) is multidimensional and not completely testable, there appear to be some theories of globalization as it relates to education that can be empirically examined.

References:
Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

The authors are not alone in asking “what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education?” (p. 138). In fact, this same question provides the basis for the discussion that follows.

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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources.Because learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, the first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things…. The second source in which modern learning theory is rooted concerns the nature and representation of mental life.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources. The first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things. The second source concerns the nature and representation of mental life.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else – perhaps the director of training – to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will “solve the problem.” And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem…. The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When major changes are initiated in organizations, there is often the implicit assumption that training will ‘solve the problem.’ And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem (Dormant, 1986, p. 238).

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivismare based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Does knowledge exist outside of, or separate from, the individual who knows? Constructivists argue that “… human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.”

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

A teacher is one who guides or leads. To guide does not necessarily mean to instruct directly. We often think of teaching as direct instruction (presenting information, asking questions, giving feedback, demonstrating some procedure, evaluating student progress, and so on). But a teacher can guide without instructing directly. A good example is the Montessori system of education. In a Montessori school, most of what a child learns is through interacting with a variety of curriculum materials in a particular context. A Montessori teacher does much less direct instruction than do teachers in traditional schools.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology.Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Teachers should be guides or leaders. In the role of a guide, a teacher does less presenting of information, demonstrating and providing feedback. For example, in a Montessori school, most student learning occurs through interaction with a variety of class materials, rather than interaction with a teacher.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else – perhaps the director of training – to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will “solve the problem.” And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem.… The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When major changes are initiated in organizations, “… there is often the implicit assumption that training will ‘solve the problem.’ And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem.” (Dormant, 1986, p. 238).

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

In a complex task such as creating a website for learning, instructors may want to support the generation of multiple solutions in learners’ peer feedback. Anonymity may create a social context where learners feel freer to express varied ideas, and make the task of giving feedback less inhibited. However, teachers need to know just how anonymity impacts the learning dynamic in order to make informed choices about when anonymous configurations are appropriate in peer feedback.

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Increased availability of technology in my classroom makes it easier for peer feedback activities to be conducted anonymously which “may create a social context where learners feel freer to express varied ideas, and make the task of giving feedback less inhibited” (Howard, Barrett, & Frick, 2010, p. 90). However, I worry that my students may be overly harsh if they don’t have to stand by their comments.

References:
Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., & Frick, T. W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge is a human construction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?






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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration. When learners are required to find a new portrayal of the information that has been presented, they are required to process the information at a deeper level in order to identify and demonstrate this new portrayal. When they are required to demonstrate their new portrayals to one another, this provides additional portrayals of the information being taught, thus increasing the richness of the instruction.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

In order to make instruction more effective, learners should be required to find additional portrayals of the information which have been presented by the instructor. Learners are expected to then demonstrate their portrayals to one another. Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

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